Baharestan Garden is one of the oldest and most historic places in Tehran, where important mansions such as the Sepahsalar Mosque and School, the National Consultative Assembly, Aziziyah Mansion (currently the Constitution Building), the Library and the new building of the Islamic Consultative Assembly are located in.
The word “Baharestan” is lexically composed of two components (words): “bahar” means spring season and “stan” is a suffix that refers to place. So, these two words together mean the ever-spring place.
Tehran like many other Iranian cities was surrounded by tall and thick walls or rampart called “Baru”. In the 1860s, the old Baru of Tehran, known as Shah Tahmasbi Baru was demolished, and the construction of new fortifications, gates and ramparts began. The new Baru was named “Nasseri Baru”, and Tehran was also known as “Nasseri Dar al-Khalafah”, and Baharestan land and garden were located on the north-eastern edge of the city. The Baru was destroyed in Reza Shah Era due to the population increase and the development of the city, and Baharestan was located entirely within the city limits.
The garden or the land had no specific name, but in the early years of the Qajar period, the western part of the garden, now called “Baharestan Square”, was called “Negarestan”.
So, where did the name "Baharestan" come from?
The land or the garden was not called “Baharestan” till 1898, but in the same year, namely 38 years before the Constitutional Revolution, Mirza Hussein Khan Sepahsalar Qazvini, the prime minister of Iran during the Qajar dynasty under king Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar between 1871 and 1873, bought a great part of the land or the garden, and from then on, it has been called “Baharestan Garden” or in his name “Sepahsalar Garden”. He developed the Garden and built some buildings that Baharestan Palace currently named the Constitution Building is the most famous among them.
There are two opinions about naming the garden “Baharestan”. First, Sepahsalar did not have any children and Nasser al-Din Shah wanted people to forget Sepahsalar’s name and memory. For the reason, the King called the garden and palace “Baharestan”. According to the second view, Sepahsalar named the garden Baharestan after he bought the land and garden because the word Baharestan was on the rhythm of the word Negarestan. Some parts of these mansions are artistic masterpieces.